Teenage - Parenting

Stress Management and Teens  青少年的壓力管理

No. 66; Updated February 2013

Teenagers, like adults, may experience stress everyday and can benefit from learning stress management skills. Most teens experience more stress when they perceive a situation as dangerous, difficult, or painful and they do not have the resources to cope. Some sources of stress for teens might include:

  • school demands and frustrations
  • negative thoughts and feelings about themselves
  • changes in their bodies
  • problems with friends and/or peers at school
  • unsafe living environment/neighborhood
  • separation or divorce of parents
  • chronic illness or severe problems in the family
  • death of a loved one
  • moving or changing schools
  • taking on too many activities or having too high expectations
  • family financial problems

青少年,如同成年人,每天會遭遇很多壓力,但也能從壓力管理的技巧學習中獲得好處。多數青少年會感受更多壓力當他們將所面臨的情境視為危險的、困難的或痛苦的以及當他們缺乏資源去應付壓力時。青少年的壓力源可能包括:

  • 學校要求及挫折
  • 負面的想法及感受
  • 體態的改變
  • 人際關係議題
  • 不安全的生活環境或鄰居
  • 父母親分居或離婚
  • 慢性疾病或嚴重的家庭議題
  • 親愛的人過世
  • 遷徙或學校變動
  • 參與過多的活動或過高的期望
  • 家庭經濟問題

 

Some teens become overloaded with stress. When it happens, inadequately managed stress can lead to anxiety, withdrawal, aggression, physical illness, or poor coping skills such as drug and/or alcohol use.

有些青少年壓力滿載。當這樣的情況發生時,不恰當的壓力管理反而會導致更焦慮、孤僻、更具侵略性、生病或以更惡劣的方式應付壓力,如:藥物或酒精濫用

When we perceive a situation as difficult or painful, changes occur in our minds and bodies to prepare us to respond to danger. This "fight, flight, or freeze” response includes faster heart and breathing rate, increased blood to muscles of arms and legs, cold or clammy hands and feet, upset stomach and/or a sense of dread.

當我們將一種情境視為是困難的或痛苦的,我們內心會有所改變,我們的身體也準備去回應該危險情境。這個〝戰鬥、逃跑或僵住〞的反應模式會讓心跳及呼吸更快,輸送到手臂及腳部肌肉的血量增加,手腳冰冷黏濕、胃部不舒服以及不斷有恐懼的感覺出現

The same mechanism that turns on the stress response can turn it off. As soon as we decide that a situation is no longer dangerous, changes can occur in our minds and bodies to help us relax and calm down. This "relaxation response” includes decreased heart and breathing rate and a sense of well being. Teens that develop a "relaxation response” and other stress management skills feel less helpless and have more choices when responding to stress.

開啟和關閉壓力反應的機制是相同的。只要我們認為該情境不再是危險的,我們內心也會有所改變,而身體也會開始放鬆和冷靜下來,這樣的〝放鬆反應〞包括心跳和呼吸變慢以及擁有安樂的感覺。懂得學習放鬆反應及其他壓力管理技巧的青少年比較不具有無望感,當回應壓力時也能夠有更多的選擇。

 

Parents can help their teen in these ways:

  • Monitor if stress is affecting their teen's health, behavior, thoughts, or feelings
  • Listen carefully to teens and watch for overloading
  • Learn and model stress management skills
  • Support involvement in sports and other pro-social activities

父母如何幫助你的青少年作壓力管理:

  • 監督壓力是否影響青少年的健康、行為、想法及感受
  • 積極聆聽青少年
  • 向青少年展現壓力管理的技巧
  • 支持青少年參與運動或其他利社會的活動

 

Teens can decrease stress with the following behaviors and techniques:

  • Exercise and eat regularly
  • Avoid excess caffeine intake which can increase feelings of anxiety and agitation
  • Avoid illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco
  • Learn relaxation exercises (abdominal breathing and muscle relaxation techniques)
  • Develop assertiveness training skills. For example, state feelings in polite firm and not overly aggressive or passive ways: ("I feel angry when you yell at me” "Please stop yelling.”)
  • Rehearse and practice situations which cause stress. One example is taking a speech class if talking in front of a class makes you anxious
  • Learn practical coping skills. For example, break a large task into smaller, more attainable tasks
  • Decrease negative self talk: challenge negative thoughts about yourself with alternative neutral or positive thoughts. "My life will never get better” can be transformed into "I may feel hopeless now, but my life will probably get better if I work at it and get some help”
  • Learn to feel good about doing a competent or "good enough” job rather than demanding perfection from yourself and others
  • Take a break from stressful situations. Activities like listening to music, talking to a friend, drawing, writing, or spending time with a pet can reduce stress
  • Build a network of friends who help you cope in a positive way

青少年可藉由以下行為及技巧減輕壓力:

  • 定時運動及飲食
  • 避免攝入過量的咖啡因,因會增加焦慮感和煩躁不安的感覺
  • 避免攝入非法毒品、酒精及香菸
  • 學習放鬆運動 (腹部呼吸和肌肉放鬆技巧)
  • 自信心確立訓練。譬如:以禮貌但堅定的態度來表達自己的感受,而非過度挑釁或消極的態度 (如:當你對我大聲吼叫時,我感到生氣,請停止〝大聲吼叫〞)
  • 反覆排練會引起壓力的情境。譬如:假如在眾人面前演講會讓你覺得焦慮,那就去上演說課
  • 學習務實的應付壓力技巧。譬如:將繁重的大任務分割成許多小型的、可實現的小任務
  • 減少負面的自我對話。用中性或正面的想法挑戰你既有的負面想法。譬如:「我的生活絕對不會變好」可以轉變成「我現在也許覺的無望,但我的生活也許會變得更好,假如我持續下功夫努力並獲得一些幫助的話」
  • 學習去做一些你能勝任或你覺得還不錯的事情,而非從事一些被別人或自己過分要求完美的事情
  • 當處於高壓狀況時,要懂得適度休息,可從事的活動如:聽音樂、和朋友聊天、話話、寫作或養寵物也可以減輕壓力
  • 建立你的朋友圈,和那些能幫助你以正向處理壓力的人當朋友

By using these and other techniques, teenagers can begin to manage stress. If a teen talks about or shows signs of being overly stressed, a consultation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist or qualified mental health professional may be helpful.

試著使用這些技巧,青少年可以開始管理壓力。假如青少年在言談間或開始顯現壓力過大時,請鼓勵他們和兒童暨青少年精神科醫師或一些合格的心理健康專家聊聊也會有幫助

 

Source: http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/FFF-Guide/Helping-Teenagers-With-Stress-066.aspx

(American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry美國兒童暨青少年精神醫學會)



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Lily Liu,
2017年4月19日 下午11:37
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Lily Liu,
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Lily Liu,
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Lily Liu,
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